Application of Life-Cycle Assessment for Nanoscale Technology: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

Posted by abdelnourrita
Type: 
Full LCA available on the web
Comparative: 
yes
Publication year: 
2013
Language: 
English
Code: 
Batteries
Product: 
Lithium-Ion Batteries
Quality and sources
Is the study a: 
Detailed LCA
Was a critical review performed?: 
No
Sponsor name(s): 
EPA
Sponsor type: 
Public administration
Practitioner(s): 
EPA
Practitioner(s) type: 
Institut/Technical research center
Summary
Functional unit: 
kilometers driven
Goal and scope of the summary: 
This paper presents Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Li-Ion Batteries used for PHEVs and EVs. The study assumes that the lifetime of the battery is the same as the lifetime of the vehicule, which is 10 years, so that only one battery is used per vehicle. The study is based on the impacts of the vehicule while the battery is in the use stage only. Moreover, the study does not include non-battery vehicle components. Whereas, impacts for the end-of-life (EOL) stage are based on current EOL technologies for recycling Li-ion batteries and one technology that is currently in the pilot stage.

The study shows that the worst environmental impacts resulted from cathodes with nickel and cobalt or solvent-based electrode processing, such as resource depletion, global warming, ecological toxicity, and impacts on human health. The main impacts are not only those resulting from material choices, production, supply and recycling processes, but also of the electricity grids used to charge the battery. So the batteries with carbon-intensive grids make the most important impacts during the "use stage".

Material impact(s): 
Ozone layer depletion
Abiotic ressources depletion
Smog
Toxicity / Eco-toxicity
Raw material impact level: 
Medium
Manufacturing impact(s): 
Acidification
Ozone layer depletion
Abiotic ressouces depletion
Smog
Manufacturing impact level: 
Medium
Shipping impact(s): 
Acidification
Ozone layer depletion
Abiotic ressouces depletion
Smog
Shipping impact level: 
Medium
Usage impact(s): 
Acidification
Ozone layer depletion
Global warming
Abiotic ressouces depletion
Eutrophication
Smog
Toxicity / Eco-toxicity
Usage impact level: 
High


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