Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

Posted by helenanandi
File: 
Type: 
article
Comparative: 
yes
Publication year: 
2010
Language: 
English
Code: 
Batteries
Code: 
Energy
Code: 
Vehicles/Fuels
Product: 
Vehicle
Quality and sources
Is the study a: 
Detailed LCA
Sponsor name(s): 
Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Sponsor name(s): 
Intelligent Energy
Sponsor type: 
Company
Sponsor type: 
Public administration
Practitioner(s): 
Patrícia Baptista
Practitioner(s): 
João Ribau
Practitioner(s): 
João Bravo
Practitioner(s): 
Carla Silva
Practitioner(s): 
Paul Adcock
Practitioner(s): 
Ashley Kells
Practitioner(s) type: 
Company
Practitioner(s) type: 
Institut/Technical research center
Summary
Functional unit: 
km travelled by a taxi vehicle (considered around 90,000 km with an average passenger occupancy of 1.48)
Goal and scope of the summary: 
This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles interms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy path ways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming).
A full Life Cycle Analysis of possible alternative vehicle technologies for the traditional London Taxi was performed regarding its energy consumption and CO2. A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell Vehicle, a Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell Vehicle and an EV were considered as alternatives to the traditional ICE diesel London Taxi. 

The PHEV-FC Taxi resulted in the lowest LCA energy consumption and CO2 emissions values with a reduction of 55% and 69%, respectively, when compared to the original ICE diesel Taxi. The HEV-FC achieved reductions of 52% and 39% of energy consumption and the EV Taxi achieved reductions of 67% and 64% of CO2 emissions.

In the TTW stage, the PHEV-F Cand the HEV-FC vehicle found to be 71% and 69% more efficient than the ICE diesel Taxi, whilst the EV achieved the lowest TTW energy consumption with a reduction of 78% compared to the ICE diesel Taxi variant. In terms of the WTT stage, the hydrogen production path way accounts for 30% more energy than the diesel path way whilst the electricity production was responsible for the highest energy consumption (more than double that of the diesel path way). It is worth high lighting the importance of the hydrogen and electricity production path ways. If increased renewable energy resources are included in the electricity generation mix or alternative processes using renewable energy resources are used for hydrogen production, the WTT factors and consequently the LCA results may be improved. 

Considering the obtained energy consumption and the daily Taxi service requirements, the HEV-FC is required to refill once a day, the PHEV-FC requires an additional 2.8 h electricity recharge time, and the EV Taxi needs 9 h recharge time due to its large battery pack (155.9kWh) oral ternatively requires a 14 kVA charging point. The results demonstrate that a hydrogen powered solution for the conventional London Taxis, can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle frame work with further improvement potential if the UK de carbonization trend is followed. If this demonstration project proves to be successful, it could be the first step to a more wide spread use of these alternative vehicle technologies and energy sources in urban environments.

Material impact(s): 
Waste generation
Global warming
Raw material impact level: 
Medium
Manufacturing impact(s): 
Waste generation
Manufacturing impact level: 
Medium
Shipping impact(s): 
Global warming
Shipping impact level: 
Medium
Usage impact(s): 
Global warming
Usage impact level: 
High
End of life impact(s): 
Waste generation
End of life impact level: 
Medium

Lien rajouté - l'étude est

Lien rajouté - l'étude est payante.




Who's new

  • ThomasJot
  • rosalindatarr2913
  • VirgilHen
  • RebeccaMal
  • Kristanjoync